Journal directory listing - Volume 66 (2021) - Journal of Research in Education Sciences【66(1)】March

Effects of Ball Activities on Visual-Motor Integration in Students with Intellectual Disabilities Author: Fang-Tsyr Chang (Department of Education with Special Education, University of Taipei, Collaborative Team Services in Elementary School Special Education)

Vol.&No.:Vol. 66, No. 1
Date:March 2021


Students with intellectual disabilities often lag behind their peers in terms of visual-motor integration. These limited visual-motor integration abilities reduce their performance in terms of daily living activities and academic learning. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of ball activities on visual-motor integration in students with intellectual disabilities. A single case study with a multiple-baseline design across various behaviors was adopted. Two students were included in this study. The independent variables were catching, throwing, and rolling ball activities, and the dependent variable was the visual-motor integration ability of the participants. Social validity was also assessed by incorporating teachers’ questionnaires into the study. The main findings are as follows: catching, throwing, and rolling ball activities in occupational therapy were helpful for improving participants’ visual-motor integration performance and resulted in immediate, maintainable, and satisfactory effects. High social validity was also demonstrated, leading to the conclusion that the intervention can improve students’ performance regarding daily living activities and academic learning.

Keywords:ball activities, intellectual disabilities, visual-motor integration

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APA FormatChang, F.-T. (2021). Effects of ball activities on visual-motor integration in students with intellectual disabilities. Journal of Research in Education Sciences, 66(1), 231-274.